Homer's Poseidon (aka Neptune)
Now that Neptune is in Aquarius to stay until 2011-2012 AD, it's again time to delve into the essential nature of this alignment. Outer planets entering a new sign introduce new trends to society. By turning this metaphorical crystal over slowly in our minds, examining how the light changes when refracted through its various facets, we might better understand the future. This is a theme we'll be living with for the next dozen years.
Aquarius, along with Libra, Pisces, and Gemini is one of four signs of the zodiac whose glyph is derived from ancient Egypt. The others come from Greece, save one. The glyph for Cancer is derived from Arabic tradition, which preserved and furthered astronomy after the fall of Rome.
The glyph for Aquarius is two broken, wavy lines; like a series of perfectly symmetrical pyramids in a row. For the Egyptians, a single line represented Nun, the unformed chaos which existed before the first day of creation, big bang, or cosmic sneeze (another Egyptian tradition). Three or more of these broken wavy lines symbolized water; the stuff that comes from your faucet. Therefore two broken wavy lines, the symbol of Aquarius which falls between Nun and actual water, represents the spiritual water of heaven; that which is not yet fully formed on the physical plane. It's your aura and the energy field that exists around us all. This is 'water' that the Waterbearer symbolically distributes.
Aquarian energy is beautiful, but it can also be cold. A blanket of white superimposed by a crisp, star-filled sky is a wonderful image to drink deeply from; but don't embrace it for too long, as the cold eventually cuts through to your marrow. As individuals, Aquarians are friendly and outgoing, but those that live with them can find them cool and distant, constantly giving away their time and energy to any stranger or hair-brained scheme that comes down the pike.
Aquarian energy is also intermittent. At their best, they're brilliant, showing flashes of genius which can be part of a life long pursuit. The silent twinkling of those faint pinpoints of light are alluring, but conditions must be right to appreciate them. City lights can easily obscure their beauty, even if you're outside city limits. Clouds and inclement weather conditions can also frustrate the most insightful astronomer, as even momentous events like an eclipse can be eclipsed.
On the high side, Aquarian energy is the energy of the people. It is people working for people, for the common good. It can be, in a social set, looked at as a form of communism, in all its idyllic trappings. But on the other hand, this country has a Moon in Aquarius. We are a nation of the people, by the people, and for the people. A couple of centuries after the original 4th, we sometimes forget that this country is the original experiment in democracy, separating itself from the European kingdoms which existed everywhere at the time.
Finally, it's important to understand this alignment for another reason. Neptune is the planet of intuitive judgement and understanding. Not only will we be living with it for the next dozen years as it passes through Aquarius; but before it leaves, the Age of Aquarius will have begun.
We'll have another 2000 years to learn about it.
Athena's Web January 15, 1999
Turning Back the Cosmic Clock
Last week we laid the framework for the essential themes of the sign Aquarius. As Neptune moves through this segment of the zodiac over the next dozen years, we will see an increase in activity and interest at the grass root levels of society. Neptune passing through Aquarius will stir up Aquarian themes, but in a Neptunian fashion. Neptune is the ruler of the subconscious, so this is what people do without realizing that they're doing it. In our December 11th edition of the Web, we explored Neptune's passage through the various signs during this century. This week, we're going to turn back the clock and examine what was going on the last time Neptune was in Aquarius, between February 1834 and February 1848.
Aquarian energy represents knowledge, information, and education. While Neptune passes through Aquarius, there is a greater interest in these themes by the people. Think of them as backyard inventors. This produced both good science and practical inventions, but also pseudo-science and a great deal of quackery. Phrenology was one of the trends which became popular during these years. It dealt with a branch of investigation which claimed that the shape of the human skull could be used to determine character traits and mental abilities; but we also see the development of McCormick's reaper, the modern electric motor, telegraph, Deere plows and transatlantic steamer travel.
Constantine Hering, an immigrant German physician, established the North American Academy of the Homeopathic Healing Art in Allentown, PA. It was the first school of homeopathic therapeutics anywhere. A report on Elementary Instruction in Europe was published. This report became the basis for the free common school system of Ohio. A state board of education to supervise the public school system, the first in the US, was created in Massachusetts. Neptune rules the Navy, and Charles Wickes was given command of a naval exploring and surveying expedition of the South Seas by Congress. Wickes would eventually publish a five volume report in 1844 on his findings.
Aquarius is a fixed air sign, and the attitudes and opinions espoused by these independent thinkers tend to be, well, fixed and opinionated. Many look at life in a manner that's best for the common good, but their view may be regional rather than universal. Hence, Neptune in Aquarius was also a period of time during which cool, intellectual indifference was also apparent as the native American was swept aside in the interest of white settlement. It was the established government opinion that all Indians must be moved west of the Mississippi, which led to the Second Seminole War (1835-1842) in Florida, and the infamous Trail of Tears, wherein all Cherokee lands were sold to the US in return for a set amount of money and 'free' transportation to the Indian Territory in Oklahoma. The rest, as they say, is history.
This is a sampling of the many Neptune in Aquarius themes evident between 1834 to 1848, and included a growing movement against slavery, called abolition. With this in mind, combining our subconscious archetype with the growing technologies in metaphorical fashion, the late 1830s found the Underground Railroad in full swing.
With Neptune's passage through Aquarius from 1834 to 1848, there was a growing interest in the spirit of freedom, especially for those at the lower end of the social scale. Since Neptune is the planet of the subconscious, it represents those that society tends to forget. In the mid-nineteenth century, this would have been the immigrant workers, the poor, and the growing slave population.
Frederick Douglas, pictured above, spent his life working for freedom and improved opportunities for blacks after his own escape to freedom as a young man in 1838, while Neptune was in Aquarius.
But Neptune also rules Christianity, and at the center of the urban black community was the church. "As among our people generally," Martin Delaney wrote Douglas in 1849, "the Church is the Alpha and Omega of all things." The church performed the usual religious ritual functions and guarded moral discipline and community values but also provided and promoted education, social insurance, fraternal associations, and picnics, concerts, and other forms of recreation.
By the 1840s, Churches had become a major source of social as well as religious activity for blacks.
Twinkle, Twinkle, Little Star
Light, shooting unimpeded across the vastness of space at speeds difficult to comprehend, in an intermittent, eccentric stream of particles rising and falling on their own uniform wavelengths, only to be broken up at the last moment, on a journey nearly completed, as they enter our atmosphere, bent by the Earth's will. From the ground, we look up to see subtle, twinkling images of times long gone, thousands of years old; a star which may, or may not, even exist. Such is the stuff Aquarians are made of.
On the high side, Aquarians are brilliant. This is the sign of genius. It represents those that are able to see and understand extensive systems of design; blueprints, electrical systems, the flow of history, or workings on the World Wide Web. Flick a switch, and you can have power for ovens, toasters, tools, or heat. Push a button and you can connect with Holland, France, or Micronesia. Simply wave a hand over a circuit, and you can 'let there be light'.
But on the flip side, this vibration is erratic. Sometimes it works; sometimes it doesn't. The electrical wiring of my old British motorcycle was made by someone called "Joe 'Don't-go-out-after-dark' Lucas". Now you see it, now you don't.
We've been examining some of the threads of Neptune's passage through Aquarius from 1834 to 1848; the 'people', and their inventions. Social causes are Aquarian, but so is lightning. You're never quite sure where it's going to strike, or when.
We see the influx of inventions throughout this period, with many of the patents going to common folk, such as blacksmiths and other workers. But as Aquarian energy dawns, so does its misuse. This is the sign of revolution, riots, and change. If Capricorn is the status quo; law and order, and the conservative tradition, so Aquarius is change, cosmic conditions, and social transformation. This is a fixed air sign, which says that these people are set in their ideas, one way or the other.
On July 4th, 1834 there were anti-abolition riots which broke out in New York City. It happened again in October, when William Llyod Garrison was rescued from a mob after preaching that "all men are created equal...". Western farming areas inflicted a severe strain on banking and loan facilities as a result of a wheat crop failure. In 1836 and 1837 there's another financial panic as President Jackson orders that only gold and silver may be used to pay for public lands. During 1837, 618 banks failed. In November, Samuel Lovejoy was killed by proslavery riots in Ohio. 'Social brotherhood' forced the Cherokees onto the 'Trail of Tears', as the Mormons were accosted because of their communal economic organization and efficiency. Divine inspiration from ol' Joe Smith states polygamy is the true way. Quack remedies abound in the New York Herald and Boston Transcript. In 1838, the steamer Moselle exploded on the Ohio River, killing one hundred. Less than a month later, the Pulaski exploded off the coast of North Carolina, killing 140. The House of Representatives adopted a gag rule, which automatically tables any petition to discuss slavery. In 1839, a slave ship mutinies, and history records the log of the Amistad.
You say you want a revolution? Two states break free from Mexico, the Alamo is lost, and the US marches to the aid of the Republic of Texas.
Aquarius represents patterns, plans, and strategms. But under difficult conditions or hard aspects, these same themes can go awry. As the world worked to keep up with the changing pace of the times, the Industrial Revolution spearheaded new technologies, social conditions, and world views. With them came dangerous manufacturing conditions, with the lives of the individual worker sacrificed, sometimes to the greater social cause, and sometimes to financial interests.
The conditions of children, women, and minorities are exploited, machinery is unsafe. New steamers explode across the headlines, and fires break out in overcrowded multiple story buildings without proper exits or firefighting equipment. Riots over ideological differences are common, and attitudes rigid. The humanity of the Native American, Irish, and slave are flushed into consciousness.
It is all part and parcel of an exciting, daring time, but also one of uncertainty. Civilization is on a roller coaster ride locked towards the future, but without fully understanding just where it was that the future was taking them.
With Liberty for All
We're continuing our exploration of the essential nature of Aquarius, taking the textbook definitions, and translating them into reality. Neptune last passed through Aquarius from February of 1834 until February of 1848. This is the sign that deals with collective social consciousness, and is therefore highly idealistic. Liberty, freedom, equality for all; these are some of the principal tenets of Aquarius.
Ever since its discovery, European intellectuals visited this country because of its novelty. Alexis de Tocqueville, a French liberal, published De la Democratie in Amerique in Belgium in 1835, and the translation, Democracy in America, in this country in 1838. He was impressed with the national attempt to have both liberty and equality. His book was the earliest important analysis of the American system of government.
The Aquarian spirit of freedom culminated in 1837 as Ralph Waldo Emerson delivered his celebrated American Scholar address at Harvard. Oliver Wendell Holmes called it "our intellectual Declaration of Independence." Many previous writers and speakers had developed the theme, but Emerson raised the subject to the level of philosophy.
But the spirit of freedom and desire to experiment in democracy is perhaps nowhere more pronounced than in the trend towards communal living and communities which were springing up throughout the country at this time. In 1834, Albert Brisbane returned to the US hoping to establish a Utopian community along the lines of Charles Fourier's Traite de l'Association Demestique-Agricole.
In 1841, the Brooke Farm Association was created by members of the Transcendental Club in an experimental cooperative community, nine miles from Boston. They sought to find a life balanced between manual labor and intellectual pursuits. The experiment ended after a severe fire in 1847.
The era of 19th century Utopian communities came to a climax in 1843 with the establishment of the North American Phalanx at Red Bank, NJ. About 1200 people were involved, and they developed a successful truck gardening enterprise. Members ate meals together, but had separate living quarters. Once again, a devastating fire burned the mill down, and the group disbanded in 1854.
In 1844, the Alphadelphia Phalanx was established on 3000 acres in Kalamazoo county, Michigan, with a membership of almost 500 people.
In 1845, Dr. William Keil founded the communal settlement of Bethel in Shelby county, Missouri. He led 500 German immigrants with utopian ideas, establishing a Church of the Living God. Keil controlled the commune, and few were paid, but all their needs were satisfied, including food, clothing, education for the children, and other benefits.
Finally, at the end of our period of investigation, one of the most successful industrial Utopian communities was established in Oneida, NY, in 1848. This was an extension of a community which had been set up in Putney, Vermont in 1839.
In 1847, the Liberty Party nominated John P. Hale for president at their convention in New York City. Before the election in 1848, the Liberty Party merged with the Free Soil Party.
The Liberty Bell cracked while it tolled the death of Cheif Justice John Marshall, who died on July 6, 1835.
In 1837, the American Peace Society formally condemned all war.
In 1840, a ten-hour workday was established by executive order for all federal employees engaged in public works. It had long been a goal of US labor.
In 1842, the legality of labor unions was established by the Massachusetts Supreme Court. It included the right to strike, higher wages, and shorter working hours.
Astrology is big on the macrocosm, microcosm, thing. As above, so below. Within you and without you. The universal energy which is transmitted to us from heaven is also reflected in ourselves. Aquarius rules the circulatory system; which must distribute vitality throughout the entire body, without regard to religion, color, or creed; ears, nose, throat, or toes. Everybody counts.
In public, this same theme is reflected as social consciousness. It is an energy of the people, by the people, and for the people. During times when the Aquarian theme is strong, we have cross cultural currents, such as Alexandria in Egypt during the time of the Ptolemies, remembered for its library, when there's learning, trade, and a successful cultural interchange.
During the last pass of Neptune in Aquarius, from 1834 to 1848, society became increasingly aware of child labor laws, treatment of the insane, Utopian communities, and abolition; the abolishment of slavery. But hand in hand with abolition went suffrage and the women's movement.
In the early history of this country, middle class women, barred from higher education, began to monopolize primary-school teaching. In this role, they were able to read and communicate more, commanding the future through education. Indeed, education became a tool to undermine 'the old school.' They started writing for magazines and newspapers, and even began women's publications. In 1835, Lydia Maria Child published A History of the Condition of Women in Various Ages and Nations. In 1837, Mt Holyoke Seminary opened for classes, the first college in the US exclusively for women. In 1838, Greensborough Female College was chartered in North Carolina.
Socially and legally, women had few rights at the time of the birth of the nation, but during our decades under review, this began to change. In 1839, Mississippi gave women property rights, as did Maine in 1844. In 1847, Vermont passed a law yielding full ownership of real estate to women to land they held at the time of their marriage. In 1848, New York did the same.
Women everywhere formed movements against the double standards of gender. They joined religious organizations. They put in enormous work all over the country, gathering thousands of petitions for Congress. Literacy doubled between 1780 and 1840, and by the 1840's women had become practiced organizers, agitators, and speakers. Some of the most legendary joined the antislavery movement. Indeed, in a way, it was the antislavery issue that gave the women's movement it's birth.
In 1840, while Neptune was in Aquarius, a World Anti-Slavery Society Convention met in London. In a fierce, highly charged pre-convention argument, it was voted to exclude women, but they could attend the meetings, 'in a curtained enclosure.' The women sat in the gallery in silent protest, but this meeting was to have far greater implications for the course of history. It was at this time that Elizabeth Cady Stanton met Lucretia Mott and others, and lay plans that eventually led to the first Women's Rights Convention in history, held in Seneca Falls, New York. It was to be a final slap in the face, that ignited a revolution.
From the soul's perspective, the body is a multicolored robe. During different lifetimes, bodies are used to experience different perspectives of life. The body becomes a lens through which a wide range of realities may be embraced.
Aquarians have an instinctive understanding of the spectrum of life, and how, at various times, we each play different parts of the drama. According to those who have experienced astral travel, 'The Tibetan Book of the Dead' and other sources, we all go through many lifetimes, as man or woman, from Africa, Asia, or America, in different centuries... all to drink from the cup of life. Apparently the difficulty is not how to get on; but rather, how to get off, the cycle of reincarnation.
A Stellar Season
We've been examining Neptuneâs pass through Aquarius from 1834 to 1848, in an attempt to understand the prevailing themes of the times. Neptune is once again in Aquarius, and will author a similar set of trends, many of which have already commenced.
This combination of currents disseminates knowledge and information to the common people. In a nutshell, the masses are becoming better educated, are more interested in learning, equality and the improvement of social conditions. When the environment is conducive to these conditions, there's a spirit of teamwork and mutual cooperation. This was seen in the increase in communal activity which was apparent at that time. Intellectuals met for the exchange of perspectives, as with The Transcendental Club, featuring Margaret Fuller, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry David Thoreau, Nathaniel Hawthorne and others, in a forum that went on for several years without any recognized officers, office, or schedule. On the flip side, however, when Aquarian themes are resisted, and social conditions are repressed to help further the interests of government, big business, or industry, then the revolution and rebellious side of this sign becomes apparent. These same years witnessed a period of increased strikes and social unrest, as people banded together to help improve their conditions, whether for the rights of children, women, slaves, or workers.
But Aquarius is also the stars. It's astronomy and astrology. During these years there was an increased interest in the signs of heaven. Late in 1835, Halleyâs Comet passed by the Earth on itâs celestial sojourn. This was the pass under which Samuel Langhorne Clemens was born, better known as Mark Twain. He fully expected to die with the cometâs return 76 years later, and did. Nevertheless, with this momentous event, both peopleâs imaginations, and their eyes, were turned towards the skies.
In 1840, an early astronomical observatory was constructed at Harvard by William Cranch Bond. In 1843, the Harvard Astronomical Observatory acquired, by private subscription, the largest telescope available. In March of that year, another comet appeared, visible in the daytime, arousing the publicâs interest again. The growing trend of giving lectures and public addresses by scientists was having itâs hoped for effect, by stirring the publicâs perceptions and awareness. 1840 also claimed the first astronomical photography, as the Moonâs image was captured by John William Draper, a physicist and astronomer at New York University. This was to set the precedent for America's world leadership in astronomical photography.
In October, 1847, Maria Mitchell, a Nantucket librarian and observer, discovered a comet, for which she received a gold medal from the King of Denmark. She was also elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences; the first woman to be so honored.
Finally, as one might expect with the planet of vision entering the sign of heaven, 1844 was the year Adventist William Miller predicted the second coming of Christ. Intuitively, this alignment anticipated the dawn of the Age of Aquarius, 168 years too soon, at which time the Messiah is supposed to return. It was the right vibration; but wrong century.
When the interests of the multitudes begin to gravitate toward education, learning, and scientific endeavors, it was almost natural that their attention would turn towards the heavens. Astronomy has traditionally been held in high esteem, even bordering on the spiritual, having long been associated with the divine will. Truly, the mystique of the unknown is nowhere better represented. In the physical realm, no other discipline is so vast, exclusive, or borders so demonstrably upon the infinite; not in the oceans, continents or even libraries of our land.
The level of academic expertise thatâs needed, in mathematical terms, to calculate and construct heavenly motion has long been a hurdle which has prevented all but an exclusive few into its inner circle. An understanding of logarithms and spherical trigonometry is essential, as are planetary formulas and multibody computations.
During the years between 1834 and 1848, the heavens themselves seemed to Îlight upâ with activity. The growing inventiveness, along with new discoveries, pushed back the frontiers of science, and led to a new spirit of daring and adventure pioneered by academian and commoner alike.
Revolution's in the Air
Over the past six weeks we've been investigating the nature of Neptune in Aquarius, and how it helped move the tide of social consciousness between 1834 and 1848. The originality and inventiveness of this sign permeates through to the grass roots of society, such that the common people benefit from futuristic approaches to life. Education and freedom are fueled, as clubs, organizations, and volunteer efforts further their collective cause. Alternative philosophies abound; and science, knowledge, and mechanical marvels become the rage. From the spiritual side, the intuitive perception is that all people are made of the same spiritual cloth, no matter the color of the particular swath.
Naturally, these standardized themes are grafted onto the social conditions of the day, and the period we have been examining was more than 150 years ago. Things have changed. The industrial revolution was still in its infancy, with electricity, the telegraph, and motors just beginning to make an appearance. Liberty and freedom for all was an opinion increasingly heard in the newspapers and new magazines and periodicals, but it was set against a stage of women as a distant second class, immigrants as not much better than serfs, and slaves as property. Standardized texts were increasingly used as primers in a growing educational system (headed by Horace Mann in Massachusetts, an Aquarian state), and interest in astronomy was strong.
These conditions are part of the parallels that we are now starting to see as a new social trend. Once again, there is a growing concern with education, as governmental focus channels money and resources in that direction. But more importantly, people are becoming more involved in alternative forms of education, from home schooling to computers in the classrooms. And speaking of computers, the new textbook primer is the world's central nervous system, the World Wide Web. It is tying together and opening up a new awareness of our communities, a vast compilation of dictionary, directory, and encyclopedia whose authors are anyone with a desk top computer.
Around the world, peoples who have been denied their own ethnic identities are reclaiming their birthrights, as the Palestinians take their first faltering steps towards a new homeland, a new South African Congress arises from the ashes of apartheid, Eastern Europe throws off the yoke of Communism, and even Scotland begins to search for its identity from under an English overlord.
Some of these roots extend further back than simply the last year or two, but they represent the general trends towards national, social, and personal independence which will agitate for change and a radical shift from tradition and the status quo. It is an intermittent light, which flickers and then flares up, striking in riots and revolution when and where necessary, stirring up the disruption of change. These are a few of the themes which the collective judgement will see fit to advance over the next dozen years, but like any trend, they will begin to wind down and lose their edge as the energy matures, and then begins to wane. To all things there is a season, a time for each activity under the Sun. We now stand at the threshold of a new Neptunian pass through Aquarius, together with a New Age.
Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott
When Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott were forced to sit in silence at the World Anti-Slavery Convention in 1840, they returned home and resolved to "form a society to advocate the rights of women." While preparing for the meeting in Seneca Falls, NY in 1848, they drew up a list of grievances. Although some states had awarded control over their property, women had none over their earnings. They would model their Declaration of Sentiments on the Declaration of Independence.
With Neptune again in Aquarius, women have begun to work once again for their rightful place in society, and are currently seeking through a national grass roots political campaign to elect a women president in the next election.
What God Hath Wrought
Our whole purpose over the last few weeks has been to examine the past, so that we might better understand both the present, and the future. What we have learned is that technology took an amazing leap forward for society. Of the signs of the zodiac, the three air signs deal with communications.
Gemini, the first of these air signs, deals with the development of personal communicative skills, speech and articulation, the training of the nervous system, writing and learning.
Libra, the second of the air signs, raises the singular development of Gemini, focused their own skills, to interpersonal communication and cooperation. The scales have come to represent the courts and the legal system, wherein its idealized goal is that before the law, everyone is equal. This can mean individual vs. individual, corporation, or national government. Each carries equal weight in court. Marriage and divorce are the other areas which are most often placed in Libra's camp. Here, the one-on-one associations are obvious.
Aquarius, our final air sign, is concerned with collective communication and what's best for the society. It, too, represents the nervous system and equality, but its concern is less personal or interpersonal, but rather of what's good for the majority. It is for this reason that we find education, and the diversity of everyone within society, coming into greater focus under the vibration of Aquarius.
One of the principal technologies which helped to enhance society's 'central nervous system' was the invention of the telegraph between 1834 and 1848. Communications for the country took a huge step forward at this time. Messages which heretofore had been delivered by horse, stagecoach, or clipper ship could now be carried instantaniously across the wires from station to station. This meant that news which had once arrived days or even weeks after the event, could now be transmitted in hours. It was during this period that this collective 'nervous system' was born, although it didn't develop overnight.
Samuel F. B. Morse demonstrated his new telegraph for a few friends in 1835. It was severely limited and inefficient because he was unfamiliar with advances made in electromagnetism by his contemporaries. Over the next two years he applied the results of more recent research, and improved the equipment. He applied for a patent in September, 1837, although it was not granted until 1844. On May 24, 1844, with the Sun and Mercury in Gemini trining Saturn in Aquarius, and Mars also in Gemini trining Neptune in Aquarius, the first telegraph message was sent from the US Supreme Court in Washington, DC to Alfred Vail in Baltimore, MD, by Morse. It read, "What hath God wrought." Although the federal government appropriated the money for this line, he was unable to interest them in the new technology, and the Magnetic Telegraph Company was founded three years later on April 16th, 1847, by Morse.
In the same way that the telegraph united us in a more instantanious fashion, so now the World Wide Web is helping humanity take another communicational leap, in another sweeping enhancement of our collective nervous system, with it's text, audio, and video potential for the future.
This painting in 1872 by John Gast, with its large goddesslike figure divinely inspiring a trail of telegraph wire in her wake, was a significant theme of the march of progress being felt across America through the 19th century. Although this technology was in many ways born of the passage of Neptune through Aquarius from 1834 to 1848, its influence naturally did not end there. Decades later, as the country continued to expand, so, too, did the seeds which had been planted during these years.
Along with the heavenly lit goddess (notice the light descending on her from above), the horse, wagon, stagecoach and railroad engine all seem to drive the Indians and wildlife from their path, as the spirit of manifest destiny swept the nation under a tide of patriotic fervor. It seemed God wanted this country to run from sea to shinning sea. Like the web of the central nervous system which runs through our bodies, coordinating the movement of hands and feet, so the telegraph lines were seen coordinating and quickening life within the country.